About palliativedrugs.com Ltd.
About the editorial staff

About palliativedrugs.com Ltd

Palliativedrugs.com Ltd. was founded in 2000 by Robert Twycross and Andrew Wilcock in order to promote and disseminate information about the use of drugs in palliative care, through the website and book versions of the Palliative Care Formulary.

In addition to providing drug information we are keen to develop a sense of community for members of the website. We welcome comments about how easy the website is to use, any information about the drugs featured or suggestions for other drugs to be included. A bulletin board is provided on the website in order to stimulate questions and debate, and for you to share your experiences with other colleagues. We continually highlight particular areas of interest relating to the use of drugs in palliative care and undertake in-house surveys about aspects of clinical practice.

We are committed to providing high quality information as well as keeping as much as possible of the website a free-access resource. You can financially support the work of palliativedrugs.com by buying our books from the bookshop, e.g. Palliative Care Formulary, Hospice and Palliative Care Formulary USA, Palliative Care Formulary Canadian edition and Symptom Management in Advanced Cancer, by subscribing to the on-line version, and by completing market research surveys when invited to do so from time to time.

About the editorial staff


Robert Twycross DM Oxon, FRCP London is Emeritus Clinical Reader in Palliative Medicine, Oxford University, former Head, WHO Collaborating Centre for Palliative Care, and Director, palliativedrugs.com Ltd. He has written some 300 articles, chapters and editorials, and is the author of several books, notably Pain Relief in Advanced Cancer, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh 1994; Symptom Management in Advanced Cancer (4th edition, with Andrew Wilcock and Claire Stark Toller). Palliativedrugs.com Ltd, Nottingham 2009; and Introducing Palliative Care (4th edition). Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxon 2003. He is a founder member of the International Association for the Study of Pain, the Association for Palliative Medicine (UK), the British Lymphology Society, the European Association for Palliative Care, and the Palliative Care Research Society (UK). He has taught in nearly 50 countries, and has had particularly close academic ties with Argentina, Hungary, India and Poland.

Andrew Wilcock DM Nottm, FRCP London is Macmillan Clinical Reader in Palliative Medicine and Medical Oncology, Nottingham University; Consultant Physician, Hayward House, Macmillan Specialist Palliative Care Unit, Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust, and Director, palliativedrugs.com Ltd. He leads a Research Team with a particular interest in breathlessness and exercise capacity with an overall aim of helping to keep people with cancer as physically independent as possible for as long as possible. Active member of the NCRI Palliative Care Studies Group, including previous Chair of the cachexia subgroup. Palliative care prescribing advisor to the British National Formulary. An author of the 3rd and 4th editions of Symptom Management in Advanced Cancer. Previously Chair of the Mid-Trent Cancer Services Network Palliative Care Group, Nottingham Cancer Centre Palliative Care Group, inaugural Secretary for the Science Committee of the Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland and member of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence Lung Cancer Guidelines Development Group.

Paul Howard BMedSci BMBS Nottm, MRCP London, Consultant in Palliative Medicine at Duchess of Kent House, Reading, Berkshire. He trained in general then palliative medicine in Nottingham, Mansfield and Derby. He has experience of interventional, pharmaco-epidemiological and laboratory-based research. His publications include therapeutics and the causation and preventability of drug-related morbidity. He has a strong interest in therapeutics and medicines management, attending formulary and therapeutics committees chairing a Data Safety and Monitoring Committee and participating in NICE guideline development. Specific contributions to the Palliative Care Formulary include neuropharmacology, adjuvant analgesia, and drugs and driving.

Senior Editor (PCF4)

Julie Mortimer BPharm (Hons) MRPharmS is a freelance pharmaceutical writer and editor. She graduated from Nottingham University in 1981 and qualified as a pharmacist in 1982 after completing her preregistration year at Nottingham General Hospital. Following basic grade rotation at Nottingham City Hospital, she became Staff Pharmacist (Formulary) for Leicestershire hospitals. Her duties involved updating the Leicestershire Prescribing Guide and assisting in the Regional Medicines Information Centre, Leicester Royal Infirmary. Subsequently, became a freelance pharmaceutical writer and editor, with principal clients including ADIS International Ltd and Douglas Science Editing Services, Japan. She has worked with palliativedrugs.com since 2004, helping with editing and copy editing of the PCF and liaising with overseas editors (US and Canadian editions).


Sarah Charlesworth BPharm (Hons) MRPharmS is a Specialist Pharmacist in Palliative Care Information and Website Management for www.palliativedrugs.com at Hayward House Macmillan Specialist Palliative Care Unit, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. She has a background in hospital clinical pharmacy and pharmacy sterile production management including active involvement in adult and paediatric nutrition teams. She has a Pharmacy Clinical Diploma and a distinction in the Postgraduate Certificate for Managing Health Services (Nottingham Trent University). Primarily responsible for several PCF sections (CSCI, compatibility charts, drugs via feeding tubes) and the continual updating of several website sections (news, additions, surveys, document library, Syringe Driver Survey Database (SDSD)).

Claire Stark Toller BM BCh Oxon, BA Oxon, MA London, MRCP London, completed her training in palliative medicine in 2011. Early studies majored on cardiac physiology and pharmacology, neuropharmacology, and psychiatric disorders. Her MA was in Medical Law and Ethics, with a dissertation on Slippery Slopes and End-of-Life Decision-Making. She has conducted research into decision making at the end of life, and is a former member of the Ethics committee of the Association for Palliative Medicine. She is co-author of the 4th edition of Symptom Management in Advanced Cancer. Specific contributions to the Palliative Care Formulary include the endocrine system, urinary tract disorders, and anaemia.

Editorial Board

Andrew Broadbent BMedSc, MB ChB, MHM, FRACP, FAChPM
Hammondcare Director of Palliative Care, Northern Sydney, Head of Palliative Care Royal North Shore Hospital, Senior Lecturer University of Sydney, NSW, Australia

Sue Burge OBE, DM, FRCP
Consultant Dermatologist, Dermatology Department, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

Rachel Burman MB BS, FRCP, MA
Consultant in Palliative Care, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cicely Saunders Institute, London, UK

Venkata Chaitanya MB BS, MRCP
Registrar in Palliative Medicine, East Midlands Deanery (North) Rotation, UK

E Joanna Chambers MB BS, FRCP, FRCR
Consultant in Palliative Medicine (rtd), Southmead Hospital, North Bristol Trust; former Clinical Advisor in Renal End of Life Care, Richard Bright Renal Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK

Alpna Chauhan MB ChB, MRCP
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, John Eastwood Hospice, Sutton- in-Ashfield, Nottinghamshire, UK

Brian Creedon MB BCh BAO, MRCPI, MMedSci
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Waterford Regional Hospital, Waterford, Ireland

Vincent Crosby FRCP
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Hayward House Specialist Palliative Care Unit, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK

Andrew Davies MSc, MD, FRCP
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, St. Luke’s Cancer Centre, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, UK

Mervyn Dean MB ChB, CCFP
Palliative Care Physician (rtd), Corner Brook, NL, Canada

Rebecca Dunn MB BS
Registrar in Dermatology, Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, UK Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK

Ruth England MRCP
Registrar in Palliative Medicine, East Midlands Healthcare Workforce Deanery (North), UK

Marie Fallon MD, FRCP
St Columbas Hospice Chair of Palliative Medicine, University of Edinburgh and Edinburgh Cancer Centre, UK

Jeff Fry BSc, PhD
Associate Professor and Reader in Molecular Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham, UK

Vanessa Halliday PhD, RD
Lecturer in Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Nottingham, UK

Janet Hardy BSc, MD, FRACP
Director, Department of Palliative and Supportive Care, Mater Health Services, Brisbane; Professor of Palliative Medicine, University of Queensland, Australia

Miriam Johnson MB ChB, MD, FRCP, MRCGP
Senior Lecturer in Palliative Medicine, Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull, UK

Paul Keeley MB ChB, FRCP
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland, UK

Vaughan Keeley PhD, FRCP
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Derby Hospitals NHS Trust, Derby, UK

Bruce Kennedy BSc(Pharm), MBA
Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Palliative Care, Palliative Care Program, Fraser Health, Surrey, BC, Canada

Samuel King BM, MRCP
Registrar in Palliative Medicine, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK

Susie Lapwood MA, BM BCh, MRCGP, DFSRH, DipPallMed
Lead Doctor, Helen and Douglas House Hospices for Children & Young Adults, Oxford UK

Mark Lee MD, MRCP
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, NHS South of Tyne and Wear Community Health Services and St Benedict’s Hospice, Sunderland, UK

Vivian Lucas MB ChB, MA
Medical Director, Garden House Hospice, Letchworth Garden City, UK

Michael Lucey MB, BMedSc, MRCPI, MBA
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Department of Palliative Medicine, St Francis Hospice, Raheny, Dublin 5, Ireland

Staffan Lundstrom MD PhD
Department of Palliative Medicine, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

Michael Minton BSc, MB BS, FRCP
Honorary Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Sir Michael Sobell House, Churchill Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, UK

Tim Morgan BSc, MB ChB, FRCP, FRCS
Macmillan Consultant and Lead Physician in Palliative Medicine, Roxburghe House and Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, NHS Grampian and Honorary Senior Lecturer, Aberdeen University, UK

Simon Noble MB BS, FRCP, DipPallMed, PGCE
Clinical Senior Lecturer in Palliative Medicine, Cardiff University, UK

Victor Pace FRCP, DipPallMed
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, St Christopher’s Hospice, London UK

Eileen Palmer BSc(Biochem), MB ChB, FRCP, DipPallMed, CertMedEd, MSt
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, NHS Cumbria and North Cumbria University Hospitals Trust, and Medical Director, Hospice at Home, West Cumbria, UK

Rachel Quibell MB BS, MRCGP
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals FT and Marie Curie Hospice, Newcastle, UK

Claud Regnard MB ChB, BMSc, FRCP
Consultant in Palliative Care Medicine, St. Oswald’s Hospice and Newcastle Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Colette Reid MB ChB, MD, MRCGP
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK

John Shaw PhD
Hayward House Study Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Campus, Nottingham, UK

Anna Spathis MA, MB BChir, MRCP, MRCGP, MSc, FHEA
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK

Mark Taubert MB ChB, MSc
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Holme Tower Marie Curie Centre, Penarth, UK

Rebecca White BSc, MSc, MRPharmS
Pharmacist Team Manager, Nutrition & Surgery, Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, UK

Zbigniew Zylicz MD, PhD
Consultant in Palliative Medicine, Hildegard Hospiz, Basel, Switzerland


The production of a book of this nature depends partly on the help and advice of numerous colleagues, both past and present. We acknowledge with gratitude the support of clinical colleagues, and members of the palliativedrugs.com community who have provided feedback, particularly via surveys or by contributing to the Syringe Driver Survey Database.

We acknowledge with thanks the advice provided by numerous correspondents, including: Claudia Bausewein, James Beattie, June Frame, Ian Hogg, Sue Hollingsworth, Stephen Kirkham, Mary Mihalyo, Eric Prommer, Constanze Remi, John Shuster, Brian Stickle, and various Medical Information Departments in the pharmaceutical industry.

We are grateful to Karen Isaac for secretarial assistance.